Five Ancient Musical Instruments from Ireland

Ireland has rich musical heritage and as these instruments illustrate, it dates back many thousands of years.


1. The Wicklow Pipes, c. 2200-2000 BC

burnt mound trough

The Wicklow Pipes in-situ (© MGL)

In 2003 a remarkable artefact was recovered during an archaeological excavation carried out by Bernice Molly at Greystones, Co. Wicklow. It consists of six carefully worked wooden pipes, which represent the world’s oldest surviving wooden musical instrument.

They were discovered in a waterlogged trough belonging to an Early Bronze Age burnt mound (c. 2120-2085 BC). Fashioned out of yew wood, the pipes were found lying side by side, in descending order. They ranged in size from 57cm to 29 cm long, although not all were complete. Internally they had been hollowed out, with the resultant internal diameters being approximately 2 cm across. However, there was no evidence for finger holes.

Instead, the ends of some of the pipes had been worked to a stepped taper, suggesting that this end was originally contained within an organic fitting. This may indicate that the pipes formed part of a composite wind instrument, such as an organ fed by a bag, or else a complex pan-pipe like device.

Wicklow pipes prehistoric music

The Wicklow Pipes



2. Two Late Bronze Age Horns from Co. Antrim,   900-600 BC

Bronze Age horns

The Drumbest and Derrynane horns (© The National Museum of Ireland)

These two Late Bronze Age horns were discovered in bogs located in Drumbest, Co. Antrim and Derrynane, Co. Kerry. Made from bronze they were originally cast in clay moulds. They represent sophisticated pieces of early metal-working and were undoubtedly valuable items, whose deposition in a bog may represent ritual activity.

During the Late Bronze Age there were two main types of horn Ireland. One blown from the end and the other from a side mouthpiece, with both types being illustrated above. In general, the end-blown horns are mainly found in the southwest of the country, while the side-blown horns have a more even distribution.

They appear to have been  popular instruments and to-date over 122 have been discovered in Ireland (Coles 1967, 117). Amazingly, this accounts for over half the total number of Bronze Age horns that have so far been found in Europe and the Middle East (after Wallace 2000, 25).

When the horns were blown they probably made a noise similar to a didgeridoo. Just click on the link below and you will hear two replica Bronze Age horns being played by Ancient Music Ireland.




3. Crotals/Rattles from Dowris, Co. Offaly,         900-600BC


The Dowris Crotals ( © British Museum)

These distinctive bronze balls/pendants formed part of huge Late Bronze Age hoard which was uncovered at  Dowris in Co. Offaly during the mid-19th century. Hollow-cast and pear-shaped they typically contain a loose piece of bronze or stone inside, which rattles when the pendants are shook. This may indicate that they represent a rather simple form of musical instrument.

Known as crotals, from the Latin crotalum, meaning rattle, the pendants are generally about 12 cm long and can weigh up to 270 grams. They have a loop at one end, indicating that they were probably suspended, although they appear to have been too heavy for attachment to normal clothing. A uniquely Irish artefact, crotals are not recorded from outside of the island.


4. The Loughnashade Trumpet, Co. Armagh,                    c. 100 BC  

Loughnashade trumpet

Loughnashade trumpet ( © National Museum of Ireland)

The magnificent Loughnashade trumpet is one of the finest surviving horns of the European Iron Age. It was discovered during drainage works at the site of a former lake (Loughnashade) in Co. Armagh. Alongside it were three other horns, which have since been lost, and a collection of human skulls and bones. This array of finds is suggestive of ritual deposition and it is likely that the lake was a site of some importance for the inhabitants of the nearby royal site at Eamhain Macha/Navan Fort.


Close-up of the decoration (© National Museum of Ireland)

Dating from circa the  1st century BC, the trumpet measures  1.86 m in length and is made from curved and rivetted sheets of bronze.  The decorative flange at the end  of the instrument is covered in an abstract floral design which is executed in repousse ornamentation. It has been suggested that originally there may have been a second, attached stem-piece that would have lengthened the trumpet and given it an overall S-shaped profile (O’Dwyer 1998).

The original function of the trumpet is uncertain but it may have been used during special ceremonies or possibly even warfare. There are numerous classical accounts which detail how the Gauls and other continental Celtic tribes used similar bronze trumpets as war-horns. For example in c. 60-30 BC the Greek historian, Diodurus Siculus wrote this description,  ‘their trumpets again are of a peculiar barbarian kin, they blow into them and produce a harsh sound which suits the tumult of war’.

What this ‘harsh‘ noise may have sounded like can be discerned  by listening to the clip below, which was produced by Ancient Music Ireland using a replica of the Loughnashade trumpet.




5. The Brian Boru Harp, c. 15th century AD

The Brian Boru Harp

The Brian Boru Harp

Also known as the  Trinity Harp, this instrument is one of Ireland’s national symbols. Its image has been used on Irish coinage and state insignia and it it was also the model for the famous Guinness logo. According to to the 18th century antiquarian, Charles Vallancey, the harp was once owned by Brian Boru. However, this is highly unlikely and instead it was probably constructed in the 15th century.

The harp is decorated with intricate carvings and originally contained fittings for twenty nine strings, with an additional 30th fitting added over the course of its life. The person who commissioned the harp is unknown, although it does bear the O’Neill coat of arms, suggesting that this family once owned it.



Coles, J. M. 1967 ‘Some Irish Horns of the Late Bronze Age’ in  The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland,
Vol. 97, No. 2 (1967), pp. 113-117

O’Dwyer, S. 1998 ‘The Loughnashade trumpet, curved trumpet or carnyx? in Archaeology Ireland, Vol. 12, No. 2, Issue No. 44, Summer 1998

Waddell, J. 2000  The Prehistoric Archaeology of Ireland,  Wordwell, Bray

Wallace, P. 2000 A Guide to the National Museum of Ireland, Town and Country House, Dublin


Ancient Music Ireland 

 British Archaeology Magazine, Issue, 77, July 2004

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20 Responses to Five Ancient Musical Instruments from Ireland

  1. Maria O'Dwyer March 11, 2014 at 7:17 pm #


    Your piece on the ancient musical instruments of Ireland is wonderful. Many thanks for all the acknowledgements. May we just mention that the Bronze Age horn you have listed as ‘Drunkendult’ is in fact ‘Derrynane’, Co. Kerry.

    We will like and share too!

    Kind regards

    Maria O’Dwyer
    Manager, Simon O’Dwyer

    • Colm March 11, 2014 at 7:33 pm #

      Hi Maria, thanks very much for the kind words 🙂 That was the caption the National Museum had on their photo. You’ve probably seen the original artefacts in person, so the caption may be wrong? Thanks for letting me know. Colm

      • Maria O'Dwyer March 11, 2014 at 9:47 pm #

        Hi Colm
        Yes I do recall the Museum having this horn with the wrong name and origin. There is a pair to the Drumbest end-blown which is a side-blown horn but it is a little smaller. The Derrynane horn is one of my favorites. It has a powerful sound. Your Facebook posts are always so brilliant. No surprising that you have so many ‘LIKES’ !!! – congrats on your work. We are excited tonight because we have got to the grand total of 999!
        Best wishes

        • Colm March 14, 2014 at 2:11 pm #

          Thanks Maria, will have to edit the post now 🙂 Good to get the right info though and thanks for the kind words about the facbook page! Colm

  2. Mujerárbol March 12, 2014 at 4:02 pm #

    Wonderful entry, Colm. I’ve it linked in my blog. Nice to listen to the powerful sounds of some of the instruments

    • Colm March 14, 2014 at 2:10 pm #


  3. Giulio March 13, 2014 at 9:29 am #

    Very interesting!!!

    • Colm March 14, 2014 at 2:10 pm #

      Thanks 🙂

  4. Justbod April 2, 2014 at 4:20 pm #

    Great article!

    I had a period of making and playing Didgeridoos and was fascinated when I found out about the bronze age horns that had been discovered in Ireland and Europe, as there seemed to be similarities between Australian Aboriginal rhythms and a lot of Irish music.

    Great to hear them being played – very similar to a didgeridoo.

    • Colm May 1, 2014 at 10:56 am #


  5. Brittney October 14, 2014 at 7:59 pm #

    These are amazing finds. Artifacts from the past can tell us so much about society before us. Thanks for sharing.

    • Colm October 16, 2014 at 5:50 pm #

      You’re welcome Brittany 🙂 Colm

  6. Sheila Leahy December 18, 2014 at 10:05 pm #

    I am learning so much from your posts Thank You.

  7. Dan Williams May 12, 2015 at 5:51 pm #

    This is a great and elucidating piece of history. Although related to the musical instruments, much can be learned from this kind of reporting. It expands my knowledge of a subject I have a long-standing interest in. Many thanks. I have hopes of seeing more similar material.

  8. Dorothy N. Gray January 8, 2016 at 1:40 pm #

    #4 was the most fascinating to me, and to one of my cats, who became very concerned and jumped up on my desk to investigate my speakers and the space behind my computer monitor.

    Fortunately for him, the clip did not last long enough to truly upset him, but he is still standing by, vigilant against rival invading tribes.

  9. Maurice Judge May 15, 2017 at 12:10 pm #

    The flutes may have been played by a group of individuals sounding their notes in a group like bell ringers.
    I have seen this type of flute group in South Africa.
    People satand in a circle and may dance as they play.
    With harmonics etc and breath techniques a wide variety of tones can be played.

  10. Eli September 23, 2017 at 12:20 am #

    Excellent article.


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