In the parish of Kilmore, in the very south of Co. Wexford, persists a peculiar funerary custom that may have medieval origins. It involves members of the funeral cortege leaving a cross, traditionally fashioned from left-over coffin wood, at a specific tree. Overtime this custom has led to many crosses collecting around the ‘sacred’ tree, which is normally a hawthorn bush located close to a crossroads.
The area around Kilmore was heavily settled during the Anlgo-Norman invasion of Ireland and it maintained a distinctive identity right down to the early modern period. Centred on the baronies of Forth and Bargy, it had its own dialect, known as Yola, which was based on Old/Middle English (with Irish and French loan words incorporated). Although the Yola language became extinct in the 19th century, many of the unique customs of this region persisted, including placing wooden crosses beneath certain trees.
This funerary tradition was also once popular in the regions of Normandy and Picardy in France (J.H 1925, p.42), which has led some historians to speculate that it may have been introduced to Wexford by the Anglo-Normans (see Colfer 2008). Although this remains uncertain, the custom was certainly practised in the early 19th century, when the antiquarian artist, George Victor du Noyer sketched the Kilmore crosses (see image below). More information on the custom can be gleamed from the National Folklore Commission’s collections, which include a number of descriptions of the practise, including:
This custom has been commonly practised at Brandycross, Sarshill and Tenacre all in the neighbourhood of the old churches of Kilturk, Tomhaggard and Kilmore and also at Barrow in Wexford. In all these places the pieces of wood remaining over from the boards out of which the coffin has been made were fashioned into crosses a couple of feet high and painted in various colours. These were then carried by the chief mourners and placed on or at the foot of a hawthorn or ash tree convenient to the cross roads nearest to the graveyard towards which the funeral wends its sorrowful way (as told by Mr Thomas Doyle, Aged 53, from Ballyask, Kilmore in 1938)
It is reassuring to see that this old tradition is still honoured today, long may it continue (the photo of the crosses at the top of the blog post and the sketch below show the same location, but separated by 168 years).
Colfer, B. (2008) Wexford : A Town and it’s Landscape, Cork University Press
J. H. (1925) ‘Ancient Funeral Custom in Kilmore Parish’ in The Past: The Organ of the Uí Cinsealaigh Historical Society, No. 3, pp. 41-46
6 thoughts on “Wayside funerary crosses, an ancient tradition from Kilmore, Co. Wexford”
The crosses at the Brandycross are placed at a gateway where the funeral leaves the road onto a church path which was a short cut to Grange cementry. Coffins were carried by coffin bearers to the Grange cementry. The coffin was carried on a stretcher like piece of equipment an example of which is displayed on the ruins of the old church ruins in Grange
thanks for sharing Larry 🙂
Readers may be interested in a new book,Yola and the Yoles, by Aidan Sullivan published by Amazon UK. It contains a drawing of the funeral cross tradition at Tenacre by the artist, George du Noyer. He was employed by the old British Civil Service in Dublin to sketch antiquities.
The book argues tat the funural cross tradition in south Wexford may have originated in the Basque area of Spain..
Yola is not dead, the book argues, it was spoken in the Forth area of Wexford by old people up into the 1970 s and some of these people taught it to their grandchildren, who speak it today.
The old tall round stone pillars featured in the drawing are a real sight in south Wexford out on the Hook peninsula too. The Norman peasants who accompanied the knights, Templars & Cistercians to south Wexford most likely initiated the practice. In Mayo the wooden crosses which mark the grave prior to a headstone being erected are placed at the side of the graveyard & become a small shine in themselves. Thanks for sharing the article – spent every summer on the Hook in the ’60s & ’70s as a kid on family holidays. It was almost unchanged for hundreds of years back then. Cows milked by hand twice a day & tools in use on farms since 1800s. The farms had their own orchards, bee hives, creameries and the household made their own beer and wine. Amazing experience. A trip to Lady’s Island on 15th August every year for pilgrimage was a highlight in the local community. Lovely to hear of the unique traditions in South Wexford & elsewhere on the island are still alive in the hearts of people over the centuries.
I learned about this tradition on Sunday Miscellany RTÉ 1 this morning, 3rd November and found the information and research fascinating.
Amazingly the fairy tree in the depiction of 1840s still seems to be in the same area.